HOW TO APPLY TEAM-BASED LEARNING IN MEDICAL EDUCATION?
Keywords:Team-Based Learning, challenges, medical education, collaborative, active learning, implementation
Team-Based Learning (TBL) is one of the new instructional strategies that encourage a higher level of learning and cognitive skills; it is a type of evidence-based collaborative active learning. Team-Based Learning is a form of small-group learning that enables one instructor to manage a number of small groups in a large class at the same time. So, small groups can work independently and effectively in the knowledge application under faculty leadership although the high students to faculty ratio. The four principles of TBL are properly formed and managed groups, student accountability, team assignments that promote learning and group interaction, and frequent and immediate feedback to the students. However, there some obstacles and challenges that prevent the successful application of Team-Based Learning in medical education such as shortcomings of the content and the lack of qualified and experienced tutors. Thus, it should overcome these barriers during implementation to ensure effective Team-Based Learning. It should establish collaboration among faculty members, administrators, and other stakeholders based on a shared vision. Moreover, organizing regular training sessions which involve faculty members is by providing the required different resources, besides assigning a responsible educational team to implement the Team-Based Learning process with a regular follow-up.
Burgess, A., Roberts, C., Ayton, T., Mellis, C. (2018): Implementation of modified team-based learning within a problem based learning medical curriculum: a focus group study. – BMC Medical Education 18(1): 74-81.
Burgess, A.W., McGregor, D.M., Mellis, C.M. (2014): Applying established guidelines to team-based learning programs in medical schools: a systematic review. – Academic Medicine 89(4): 678-688.
Cestone, C.M., Levine, R.E., Lane, D.R. (2008): Peer assessment and evaluation in team‐based learning. – New Directions for Teaching and Learning 2008(116): 69-78.
Chan, L.K., Ganguly, P.K. (2008): Evaluation of small‐group teaching in human gross anatomy in a Caribbean medical school. – Anatomical Sciences Education 1(1): 19-22.
Compton, S., Kamei, R., Cook, S. (2016): The history and future of Team-Based Learning. – Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare 25(1): 3-4.
Conway, S.E., Johnson, J.L., Ripley, T.L. (2010): Integration of team-based learning strategies into a cardiovascular module. – American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 74(2): 7p.
Cowan, M., Arain, N.N., Assale, T.S.A., Assi, A.H., Albar, R.A., Ganguly, P.K. (2010): Student‐centered integrated anatomy resource sessions at Alfaisal University. – Anatomical Sciences Education 3(5): 272-275.
Elshama, S.S. (2016): How to develop Medical Education: Implementation view. – Scholar Press 204p.
Falter, R.A., Ealey, M.R., Carroll, K.A. (2018): Evaluation of modified team-based learning activities on student performance on therapeutic assessments. – Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning 10(8): 1097-1103.
Haque, M., Majumder, M.A.A. (2017): Team Based Learning in Medical Education–A Review. – Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res 43(2): 59-63.
Hawi, R. (2017): Implementation of Team Based Learning (TBL) in a Lebanese Medical School. – Journal of Comparative and International Higher Education 9(2): 23-30.
Inuwa, I.M., Al-Rawahy, M., Roychoudhry, S., Taranikanti, V. (2012): Implementing a modified team-based learning strategy in the first phase of an outcome-based curriculum–Challenges and prospects. – Medical Teacher 34(7): e492-e499.
Kendal-Wright, C., Kasuya, R. (2010): Medical School Hotline: Team Based Learning: A Potential Addition to the JABSOM Curriculum. – Hawaii Medical Journal 69(10): 247-248.
Khansari, P.S., Coyne, L. (2018): An innovative addition to team-based-learning pedagogy to enhance teaching and learning: Students' perceptions of team exams. – Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning 10(1): 90-95.
Koles, P.G., Stolfi, A., Borges, N.J., Nelson, S., Parmelee, D.X. (2010): The impact of team-based learning on medical students' academic performance. – Academic Medicine 85(11): 1739-1745.
Lane, D.R. (2008): Teaching skills for facilitating team‐based learning. – New Directions for Teaching and Learning 2008(116): 55-68.
Michaelsen, L.K., Sweet, M. (2008): The essential elements of team‐based learning. – New Directions for Teaching and Learning 2008(116): 7-27.
Obad, A.S., Peeran, A.A., Shareef, M.A., Alsheikh, W.J., Kalagi, D.A., AlAmodi, A.A., Khan, T.A., Shaikh, A.A., Ganguly, P., Yaqinuddin, A. (2016): Assessment of first-year medical students’ perceptions of teaching and learning through team-based learning sessions. – Advances in physiology education 40(4): 536-542.
Oldland, E., Currey, J., Considine, J., Allen, J. (2017): Nurses’ perceptions of the impact of team-based learning participation on learning style, team behaviours and clinical performance: An exploration of written reflections. – Nurse Education in Practice 24: 62-69.
Parmelee, D., Michaelsen, L.K., Cook, S., Hudes, P.D. (2012): Team-based learning: a practical guide: AMEE guide no. 65. – Medical Teacher 34(5): e275-e287.
Parmelee, D.X., Michaelsen, L.K. (2010): Twelve tips for doing effective team-based learning (TBL). – Medical Teacher 32(2): 118-122.
Tai, B.C., Koh, W.P. (2008): Does team learning motivate students' engagement in an evidence-based medicine course? – Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore 37(12): 5p.
Thompson, B.M., Schneider, V.F., Haidet, P., Levine, R.E., McMahon, K.K., Perkowski, L.C., Richards, B.F. (2007a): Team‐based learning at ten medical schools: two years later. – Medical Education 41(3): 250-257.
Thompson, B.M., Schneider, V.F., Haidet, P., Perkowski, L.C., Richards, B.F. (2007b): Factors influencing implementation of team-based learning in health sciences education. – Academic Medicine 82(10): S53-S56.
Tweddell, S., Clark, D., Nelson, M. (2016): Team-based learning in pharmacy: The faculty experience. – Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning 8(1): 7-17.
Whitley, H.P., Bell, E., Eng, M., Fuentes, D.G., Helms, K.L., Maki, E.D., Vyas, D. (2015): Practical team-based learning from planning to implementation. – American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 79(10): 12p.
Wu, S., Farquhar, J., Compton, S. (2018): Why do team-based learning educators use TBL. – The Asia Pacific Scholar 3(1): 38-41.
Zgheib, N.K., Dimassi, Z., Bou Akl, I., Badr, K.F., Sabra, R. (2016): The long-term impact of team-based learning on medical students’ team performance scores and on their peer evaluation scores. – Medical Teacher 38(10): 1017-1024.
Zgheib, N. (2012): Team based learning. – CTL Newsletter 1(1): 1-6.
Zgheib, N.K., Simaan, J.A., Sabra, R. (2011): Using team‐based learning to teach clinical pharmacology in medical school: student satisfaction and improved performance. – The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 51(7): 1101-1111.
Zingone, M.M., Franks, A.S., Guirguis, A.B., George, C.M., Howard-Thompson, A., Heidel, R.E. (2010): Comparing team-based and mixed active-learning methods in an ambulatory care elective course. – American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 74(9): 1-7.