ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHORATE POISONING: CLINICAL, DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC APPROACH
Keywords:Organophosphates, poisoning, therapeutic, diagnostic
Organophosphate poisoning is considered pesticides that have the ability to inhibit the enzyme Acetylcholinesterase to produce an overstimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors present in the CNS, exocrine glands, hollow organs, among others. A narrative review was carried out based on keywords of poisoning, organophosphate, poison and acetylcholine in between 2015 and 2020. Organophosphate poisoning mainly presents in cholinergic syndrome product of overstimulation of the muscarinic receptors. Subacutely, it can present as intermediate syndrome and subsequent consists polyneuropathy induced by organophosphates. The clinical findings pesticide exposure will provide the diagnosis. In the driving initial symptomatic should use atropine, which will act in a competitive with ACh for muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, but the reversal of the action of the organophosphate on AChE is only carried out with the oximes, pradiloxime is the first choice. The reviewed provides updated information about key aspects in organophosphate poisoning as well as a approach in the clinical presentation.
Alahakoon, C., Dassanayake, T.L., Gawarammana, I.B., Weerasinghe, V.S., Buckley, N.A. (2020): Differences between organophosphates in respiratory failure and lethality with poisoning post the 2011 bans in Sri Lanka. – Clinical Toxicology 58(6): 466-470.
Alozi, M., Rawas-Qalaji, M. (2020): Treating organophosphates poisoning: management challenges and potential solutions. – Critical Reviews in Toxicology 50(9): 764-779.
Amir, A., Raza, A., Qureshi, T., Mahesar, G.B., Jafferi, S., Haleem, F., Khan, M.A. (2020): Organophosphate poisoning: demographics, severity scores and outcomes from National Poisoning Control Centre, Karachi. – Cureus 12(5): e8371.
Anchatipán-Escobar, J., Vailati, J.P., Viteri-Robayo, C. (2020): Serum Concentrations of the Enzyme Acetylcholinesterase in Farmers Exposed to Organophosphates. – Enfermería Investiga 5(3): 39-45.
Gutiérrez-Jara, J.P., Córdova-Lepe, F.D., Muñoz-Quezada, M.T., Chowell, G. (2020): Susceptibility to organophosphates pesticides and the development of infectious-contagious respiratory diseases. – Journal of Theoretical Biology 488: 8p.
Leonel Javeres, M.N., Habib, R., Judith Laure, N., Abbas Shah, S.T., Valis, M., Kuca, K., Muhammad Nurulain, S. (2021): Chronic exposure to organophosphates pesticides and risk of metabolic disorder in cohort from pakistan and cameroon. – International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(5): 13p.
Manohar, T., Kannawar, A. (2020): Guillain Barre Syndrome Presenting as Delayed Complication of Organophosphorus Poisoning. – EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 8: 12-14.
Mbah Ntepe, L.J., Raza, S., Judith, N., Anwar, F., Habib, R., Batool, S., Nurulain, S.M. (2020): Mixture of Organophosphates Chronic Exposure and Pancreatic Dysregulations in Two Different Population Samples. – Frontiers in Public Health 8: 14p.
Nizami, M.F., Sharma, C.B., Singh, B., Guria, R.T. (2020): Intramuscular pyrethroid with organophosphorus (cypermethrine 3%+ quinolphos 20%) mixed poisoning, its clinical presentation and management. – Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 9(5): 2521-2523.
Omar, S., Bahemia, I.A., Toerien, L., San Pedro, K.M., Khan, A.B. (2021): A retrospective comparison of the burden of organophosphate poisoning to an Intensive Care Unit in Soweto over two separate periods. – African Journal of Emergency Medicine 11(1): 118-122.
Pérez, A.A.D., Amador, J.M.L., Pesantez, M.F.M., Hinojosa, J.A.V. (2021): Emergency management in pesticide poisoning. – RECIMUNDO 5(2): 179-186.
Saborío Cervantes, I.E., Mora Valverde, M., Durán Monge, M.D.P. (2019): Organophosphate poisoning. – Medicina Legal de Costa Rica 36(1): 110-117.